Mechanism and factors influence of graphene-based nanomaterials antimicrobial activities and application in dentistry
Asanah Radhia,b, Dasmawati Mohamadb, Fatimah Suhaily Abdul Rahmanb, Abdul Manaf Abdullahb, Habsah Hasanc
Faculty of Bioengineering and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli Campus, Jeli, Kelantan, 17600, Malaysia.
The antimicrobial activity of graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs) has recently gained significant attention in numerous biomedical science applications. GBNs exhibit excellent antimicrobial properties and have been adopted as antimicrobial nanomaterials due to their abilities to disrupt the integrity of bacterial cell membrane and produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). This review discussed the various mechanisms of GBNs' antimicrobial effects and factors underlying GBNs' antimicrobial activity, such as microbial cell morphology, GBNs' flake size and concentration, presence of functional groups, exposure to electromagnetic radiation, and effects of electrical conductivity. The potential applications of GBNs in clinical treatment were highlighted in this review to provide an in-depth understanding of the GBNs’ antimicrobial effects in dentistry and provide directions for future studies. These applications included GBNs incorporation with acrylic resin to fabricate dentures, composite resin and cement in restorative treatment, adhesive materials in orthodontic treatment, and implants coating in dental implant treatment.
Keywords: Antimicrobial, Dental materials, Dentistry, Graphene-based nanomaterials.