Characterization of alcohol/salt aqueous two-phase system for optimal separation of gallic acids
Hui SuanNg1,Phei Er Kee1, Hip Seng Yim1, Joo Shun Tan2, Yin Hui Chow3, John Chi-Wei Lan4
Faculty of Applied Sciences, UCSI University, UCSI Heights, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Gallic acid (GA) is a hydrophilic polyphenol which is noteworthy for strong antioxidant capacity. The drawbacks of conventional extraction approaches such as time-consuming and high processing cost are often viewed as a hurdle to extract GA from plant sources in industrial scale. Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is a separation approach which can be employed as an alternative to the conventional approaches. The partition behaviour of GA in an alcohol/salt ATPS was investigated in this study to aid the development of industrial scale ATPS to extract GA from natural sources. The separation of GA was characterized by determining the types of alcohol and salt, phase composition, sample load, pH of the system and addition of adjuvants applied in the alcohol/salt ATPS construction. The hydrophilic GA was targeted to the salt-rich phase of the alcohol/salt ATPS with a partition coefficient (KGA) of 25.00 ± 0.00. The optimum condition of ATPS for the maximum partition of GA was achieved in ATPS comprised of 24% (w/w) 1-propanol and 22% (w/w) phosphate salt at pH 8 with 5% (w/w) of 1 mg/mL sample loading and 2% (w/w) NaCl addition. The findings suggest that ATPS can be applied for separation of GA from various natural sources.
Keywords: Gallic acid, Aqueous two-phase system, Separation, Alcohol, Partition coefficient.