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Food Chemistry
Vol. 220, 2017, Pages: 233–241

Proniosomal powders of natural canthaxanthin: Preparation and characterization

Maryam Ravaghi, Chiara Sinico, Seyed Hadi Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Mousavi, Elena Pini, Anna Maria Fadda

Department of Food Science, Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 4111, Karaj 3158777871, Iran.


In this study, canthaxanthin (CTX) was produced by Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1 using beetroot molasses as substrate and used for encapsulation in proniosome powders after extraction, with the aim of improving its stability. Proniosome powders were prepared with an equimolar ratio of span 60/cholesterol and four different carriers, namely maltodextrin, mannitol, lactose and pullulan. The properties of these formulations as both proniosomal powders and resulted niosomal dispersions were evaluated. The type of carriers had significant effects on the micrometric properties of proniosome powders which were further confirmed by the results of SEM analysis. Although light and high temperatures affected the stability of CTX drastically, but encapsulation in proniosomes retarded its degradation. Among these samples, mannitol based proniosome powder (MAPP) produced small vesicles (mean diameter = 175 ± 3 nm and polydispersity index = 0.28 ± 0.02) with the highest entrapment efficiency (74.1 ± 2.7%). MAPP provided a promising formulation to increase CTX stability especially upon storage at high temperatures (45 °C).

Keywords: Canthaxanthin; Carrier; Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1; Proniosome; Span 60.

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