- Gut microbiota produce tryptamine via tryptophan (Trp) decarboxylation
- Two bacterial Trp decarboxylases from gut Firmicutes were identified and characterized
- Structure of one of the tryptophan decarboxylase suggests catalytic mechanism
- >10% of healthy humans harbor a Trp decarboxylase in their gut microbiome
Several recent studies describe the influence of the gut microbiota on host brain and behavior. However, the mechanisms responsible for microbiota-nervous system interactions are largely unknown. Using a combination of genetics, biochemistry, and crystallography, we identify and characterize two phylogenetically distinct enzymes found in the human microbiome that decarboxylate tryptophan to form the β-arylamine neurotransmitter tryptamine. Although this enzymatic activity is exceedingly rare among bacteria more broadly, analysis of the Human Microbiome Project data demonstrate that at least 10% of the human population harbors at least one bacterium encoding a tryptophan decarboxylase in their gut community. Our results uncover a previously unrecognized enzymatic activity that can give rise to host-modulatory compounds and suggests a potential direct mechanism by which gut microbiota can influence host physiology, including behavior.