A comprehensive review on incredible renewable carriers as promising platforms for enzyme immobilization & thereof strategies
Shalu Aggarwal, Archana Chakravarty, Saiqa Ikram
Bio/Polymers Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025, India.
Enzymes are the highly versatile bio-catalysts having the potential for being employed in biotechnological and industrial sectors to catalyze biosynthetic reactions over a commercial point of view. Immobilization of enzymes has improved catalytic properties, retention activities, thermal and storage stabilities as well as reusabilities of enzymes in synthetic environments that have enthralled significant attention over the past few years. Dreadful efforts have been emphasized on the renewable and synthetic supports/composite materials to reserve their inherent characteristics such as biocompatibility, non-toxicity, accessibility of numerous reactive sites for profitable immobilization of biological molecules that often serve diverse applications in the pharmaceutical, environmental, and energy sectors. Supports should be endowed with unique physicochemical properties including high specific surface area, hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, enantioselectivities, multivalent functionalization which professed them as competent carriers for enzyme immobilization. Organic, inorganic, and nano-based platforms are more potent, stable, highly recovered even after used for continuous catalytic processes, broadly renders the enzymes to get efficiently immobilized to develop an inherent bio-catalytic system that displays higher activities as compared to free-counter parts. This review highlights the recent advances or developments on renewable and synthetic matrices that are utilized for the immobilization of enzymes to deliver emerging applications around the globe.
Keywords: Bio-polymers, Enzyme immobilization, Inorganic and organic carriers, Nanomaterials, Enzyme reusability, Techniques.