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Vol. 165, 2016, Pages: 358–368

Analytical techniques for steroid estrogens in water samples - A review

Aurore Filly, Anne Sylvie Fabiano-Tixier, CÚline Louis, Xavier Fernandez, Farid Chemat

Université d'Avignon et des pays de Vaucluse, INRA, UMR408, GREEN Extraction Team, 84000 Avignon, France.


Using water as a green solvent with a variable geometry makes use of physical and chemical phenomena that are fundamentally different from those applied in conventional extraction techniques such as hydro-distillation, steam distillation or solvent extraction. Advantages and drawbacks of using water as a solvent with different physical and chemical states have been compared. A total of ten extraction techniques: hydro-distillation (HD), steam distillation (SD), turbo-hydro-distillation (THD), salt-hydro-distillation (NaCL-HD), enzyme-hydro-distillation (Enzyme-HD), micelle-hydro-distillation (Micelle-HD), ultrasound-hydro-distillation (US-HD) or subcritical water-hydro-distillation (SW-HD), solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and microwave steam distillation (MSD) were used to extract the essential oil from lavender (Lavandula L.) and their results were compared. The quantity was measured by the yield of essential oil and the quality was evaluated using the oil composition especially the content of linalyl acetate, linalool and terpin-4-ol compared with the corresponding control sample: Hydro-distillation. For environmentally friendly of the process: extraction time, total energy consumption and CO2 emission were considered and compared with conventional hydro-distillation. The mechanism explaining the linalyl acetate degradation has been resolved by using COSMO-RS software. Based on the present experimental conditions, it is recommended that lavender oil may be produced preferably by steam distillation assisted by microwave extraction to reduce the by-product formation by various chemical reactions and to get better oil recoveries.

Keywords: Extraction; Water; Sustainable solvent; Green techniques; COSMO-RS.

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