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European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Vol. 117, 2017, Pages: 195-202

Antioxidant-based topical formulations influence on the inflammatory response of Japanese skin: A clinical study using non-invasive techniques

Mahmoud Z.Ibrahim, Ahmed A.D.Sarhan, FarazilaYusuf, M.Hamdi

Centre of Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


Recently, there has been an increasing trend in researches focusing on improving the performance of the biomedical implants. The clinicians used metallic implants to treat bone imperfections and fractures. The commonly used metals (Stainless steel, Ti-alloys and Co-alloy) failed to prove long-term durability and did not build sufficient bond with human bone. Since the invention of bioactive materials, which can generate chemical bond with bones, the researchers proposed combining the superior mechanical properties of metals and bioactivity of bioactive materials. This can be achieved by cladding bioactive material on metallic substrate. Different techniques, like thermal spraying, electron magnetron sputtering, laser cladding, etc., were proposed to successfully deposit bioactive materials on metallic substrates. In this article, we will discuss the potential of available metallic alloys and bioactive materials in biomedical implants including different techniques used in depositing bioactive materials on metallic implants.

Keywords: Biocompatible metals,Bulk Metallic Glass alloys,Bioactivity,Coating techniques,Bioglass,Hydroxyapatite.

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