Enzymes and their production strategies
Himanshu Sharma1,2, Santosh Kumar Upadhyay1
Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.
All life forms are unimaginable without enzymes. Enzymes are present in plants, animals, and even microbes. Enzymes are proteinaceous in nature except for some catalytic RNA molecules such as ribozyme. Owing to their large number of applications, they have a huge demand in industries, as well as in research. There are three types of enzyme sources: plants, animals, and microbes. Conventionally, enzymes were produced from plants and animal cell culture. However, after the onset of enzyme biotechnology, microbial enzymes have occupied a major share of the enzyme market. Recombinant DNA technology helps to introduce an enzyme-producing gene in microbes and allow them to make the specific protein. The microbial cells are grown in a controlled environment to yield enzymes. The downstream processing includes the recovery and fractionation of enzymes with different techniques. Plants and animal cell culture is still in use for yielding very special enzymes. These enzymes are costly and require high-end purifications. Enzymes have numerous applications in industries such as food and beverage, therapeutics, cosmetics, leather and wool, paper and pulp, and waste treatment.
Keywords: Enzyme, purification, fermentation, recombinant, yield.