Manipulation of global regulators in Escherichia coli for the synthesis of biotechnologically relevant products
M. Julia Pettinari, Diego E.Egoburo
Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, IQUIBICEN-CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Global regulators are hierarchical regulators that control directly or indirectly multiple genes simultaneously, optimizing the use of metabolic pathways according to growth conditions. Escherichia coli is a model facultative bacterium capable of adapting to many different environments, ranging from the intestinal tracts of suitable hosts to fresh water. Among the global regulators that have the most important effects on E. coli metabolism, this review will focus on the effects and manipulation of ArcAB, CreBC, Crp, Cra, Rob, and FNR. These regulators control metabolic pathways according to the carbon sources and electron acceptors available in the medium, changing central C metabolism and affecting the synthesis of diverse metabolites. The systematic comprehension of the regulation over E. coli metabolism exerted by global regulators in different growth conditions will provide the framework to effectively use global regulator manipulation to generate microbial cell factories suitable for the production of many biotechnologically relevant compounds.
Keywords: Escherichia coli, Global regulation, Redox state, Central C metabolism, ArcAB, CreBC.