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Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
Vol. 15 (1), 20
17, Pages: 197-210

Microbial cellulases Diversity & biotechnology with reference to mangrove environment: A review

B.C.Behera, B.K.Sethi, R.R.Mishra, S.K.Dutta, H.N.Thatoi

Department of Biotechnology, North Orissa University, Baripada 757003, Odisha, India.

Abstract

Cellulose is an abundant natural biopolymer on earth, found as a major constituent of plant cell wall in lignocellulosic form. Unlike other compounds cellulose is not easily soluble in water hence enzymatic conversion of cellulose has become a key technology for biodegradation of lignocellulosic materials. Microorganisms such as aerobic bacteria, fungi, yeast and actinomycetes produce cellulase that degrade cellulose by hydrolysing the β-1, 4-glycosidic linkages of cellulose. In contrast to aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria lack the ability to effectively penetrate into the cellulosic material which leads to the development of complexed cellulase systems called cellulosome. Among the different environments, the sediments of mangrove forests are suitable for exploring cellulose degrading microorganisms because of continuous input of cellulosic carbon in the form of litter which then acts as a substrate for decomposition by microbe. Understanding the importance of cellulase, the present article overviews the diversity of cellulolytic microbes from different mangrove environments around the world. The molecular mechanism related to cellulase gene regulation, expression and various biotechnological application of cellulase is also discussed.

Keywords: Cellobiohydrolases, Endoglucanases, Exoglucanases, Mangrove ecosystem, Microorganisms.

 
 
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