Microbial Electrochemical Technologies for CO2 Sequestration
Makarand M.Ghangrekara,b, Sovik Dasa, Swati Dasb
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India.
The concentration of atmospheric CO2 is increasing at a frightening rate, which warrants the use of sustainable mitigation techniques to counter global warming, a repercussion of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration. In this regard, microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) can be employed to sequester atmospheric CO2 and concomitantly produce valuables like bioelectricity and biofuels. Production of bioenergy in the form of bioelectricity and other value-added products through the degradation of organic matter present in wastewater with concomitant CO2 sequestration is the need of the hour to achieve environmental sustainability and promote circular bioeconomy, which mainly deals with the use of waste material as a resource for the production of valuables through biological means. The waste gas, CO2, emitted by various industries can be used as a feedstock by METs to produce biofuels and other value-added chemicals, thus achieving circular bioeconomy. Therefore, this chapter elucidates the scope of the application of MET as a sustainable technology to sequester atmospheric CO2 and simultaneously produce value-added by-products at an efficient engineering level and discusses the bottlenecks associated with these technologies.
Keywords: Bioelectrochemical systems, Carbon sequestration, Microbial carbon capture, Microbial electrochemical technologies, Microbial electrosynthesis, Plant microbial fuel cell.